C - Fingerprint Dictionary PDF Print E-mail
CA or CAE
Cyanoacrylate Ester (superglue). An adhesive used in a fuming method
to develop friction ridge detail.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

See Cyanoacrylate Ester.

CARDPACT
An acronym that stands for "Combined Advanced Ridgeology, Demystifying
Palm Prints, and Comparison Techniques". This was an advanced class taught
by the most prominent experts in the latent print community; Pat Wertheim,
David Ashbaugh, David Grieve, and Ron Smith.

CAS
Competency Assessment Services Ltd.

CFRE
Complete Friction Ridge Exemplars.

CFSO
The Consortium of Forensic Science Organizations. The consortium is composed of
the IAI, the AAFS, ASCLD, NAME (the National Association of Medical Examiners),
ASCLD-LAB, and FQS.

CIS
Canadian Identification Society.

CJIS
Criminal Justice Information Services Division. The CJIS Division was established
in Feb. 1992 to serve as the focal point and central repository for criminal
justice information services in the FBI. It is the largest Division within the FBI.
Programs that were initially consolidated under the CJIS Division include the
National Crime Information Center (NCIC), Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR), and
Fingerprint Identification. In addition, responsibilities for several ongoing
technological initiatives were also transferred to the CJIS Division, including the
Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS), NCIC 2000, and the
National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS).
http://www.fbi.gov/hq/cjisd/about.htm

C.R.
Crown to Rump. This abbreviation is used to illustrate the length of a fetus during
friction ridge development.

CRFP
Council for the Registration of Forensic Practitioners. A United Kingdom organization
that started in 2001 and closed March 31, 2009 due to financial issues.

CSI Effect
The effect on jurors of watching the forensic science shows offered on television.
After watching these television shows, the ‘CSI effect’ claims that jurors expectations
of what evidence should be produced at trial are now higher. Jurors may now feel that
if forensic evidence isn’t produced in a trial, the police and prosecutors didn’t do
their jobs adequately. Due to these shows, jurors also have unrealistic ideas of what
scientific techniques are available and how likely it is to find forensic evidence.

CSS
Crime Scene Search. A filter for an alternate light source. This wavelength
works well for an overall crime scene search to visualize different types of
trace evidence.

CTS
Collaborative Testing Services.

CV
See Curriculum Vitae.

Cadmium Chloride
A metal salt used to treat ninhydrin developed latent prints.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Calcar Area
Area located at the heel of the foot.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Wentworth and Wilder refer to the Calcar pattern as extremely rare. It
occurs on the heel of the foot usually in the form of a single loop opening
inwards.

Caldwell, Harry H. (1872-1957)
An inspector for the Oakland Police Department who founded the IAI in 1915
and was elected president of the organization for the first six years.

Canadian Identification Society
An organization founded in 1978 with the goal as having a place where experts
could discuss mutual problems and exchange scientific & technical information
that would enhance identification work in Canada.
http://www.cis-sci.ca/HistoryCIS.asp

The charter members of the CIS were Lloyd Dunham, Christopher Tiller, Howard
Hall, Clayton Bigras, Roger Remillard, Richard Jordon, Allen Wrenshall, Donald
Braithwaite, Harold Tuthill, Donald Guttman, and Ronald Duck. Honorary
Members were Judge Rene J. Marin, Deputy Commissioner A.C. Potter and
David C. Day Q.C. The Canadian Identification Society publishes a quarterly
journal called “Identification Canada”.

Carpal Delta Area
Area of the palm containing a delta formation nearest the wrist.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Carlsson, Kjell
Pronounced Shell Carlsson.
Kjell Carlsson was employed with the Swedish National Forensic Lab for 10
years before working as a Forensic Scientist for the Stockholm Police Crime
Laboratory, where he's been since 1975. Additionally he founded a research
and development company, Kjell Carlsson Innovation, aimed at improving forensic
tools. Among his most valuable inventions are Mikrosil, Wetwop, the Electrostatic
Dust Lifter, the Electrostatic Vacuum Box, the Versa Light Box, and Snow Print Wax.

Catalyst
A substance, usually used in small amounts relative to the reactants, that
modifies and increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed in the
process.
The American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition.
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?r=2&q=catalyst 03-08-2004

Cella, Cesare J.
See People v. Crispi.

Certainty
A measurement of ones state of mind with reference to truth. An amount of confidence.

See Accuracy.

Certified
An endorsement by an influential organization stating you've met
certain requirements and are officially recognized as being qualified
in a particular field.

Chacko, L.W.
Wrote "The Dermal Papillae and Ridge Patterns in Human Volar Skin" in 1968
with M.C.Vaidya.

Chamberlain, Paul
Paul Chamberlain is a forensic scientist and scientific advisor for fingerprints with
the Forensic Science Service (FSS), a major UK provider of forensic services.
Paul has over 22 years experience in fingerprint detection and comparison. He
started his career with the London Metropolitan Police before taking senior roles
in two provincial police forces. He joined the FSS in 2000 initially working on the
expansion of fingerprint services. He continues to undertake case work but is
also involved in a number of projects. In addition to being involved with the
probabilistic approach to fingerprint comparisons these include proficiency
trials and case interpretation strategies. Paul is the Chair of the ENFSI
(European Network of Forensic Science Institutes) European Fingerprint
Working Group and leads on the production of their Fingerprint Best Practices
Manual.

Champod, Dr. Christophe
Christophe Champod is Professor of forensic science at the school of criminal
sciences / Institut de Police Scientifique, University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
He has strong interest in statistical and inferential issues in identification
evidence and has written articles on the frequency distribution of friction skin
characteristics. In 2004, Christophe Champod co-wrote "Fingerprints and Other
Ridge Skin Impressions" with Chris Lennard, Pierre Margot and Milutin Stoilovic.
He is also an invited member of the Scientific Working Group on Friction Ridge
Analysis, Study and Technology.

Characteristics
Features of the friction ridges. Commonly referred to as minutiae, points, or ridge
formation morphologies.
SWGFAST, Glossary 07-28-2009 ver. 2.0

Distinctive aspects within friction ridges.

Aka Features.

Characteristics, types of (not a complete list)
Ending ridge
Fork or bifurcation
Island
Dot
Bridge
Spur
Double bifurcation
Trifurcation
Short ridge
Warts

Charlton, David Ashley James (April 18, 1963-present)
Dave Charlton is an internationally recognized latent print expert from the United
Kingdom. He began his career in 1987 and has since been involved in many aspects
of latent print work including promoting worldwide communication within our
industry, developing and implementing updated practices and procedures, as well
as research.

Dave Charlton is an active member in several professional organizations. Since 2001,
he has been the editor of Fingerprint Whorld, the educational and peer review
journal of The Fingerprint Society and has been one of the principle organizers of
several Fingerprint Society sponsored national conferences. He’s a member of
“the Third Level Detail Sub-Group”, formed by the Association of Chief Police Officers
to investigate the potential use of third level detail within the identification process.
He is also an active member of the IAI, and sits on the editorial review board and the
latent print subcommittee. He has authored several papers and given many
presentations at educational conferences. From 1995 to 1999, Dave Charlton was
instrumental in the development and implementation of the United Kingdoms National
Automated Fingerprint Identification System, known as NAFIS.

Currently, Mr. Charlton is working for the Sussex Fingerprint Bureau. He spends
much of his time collaborating with others in researching the cognitive aspects and
psychological influences on the latent print decision making process. His most
recent findings have been presented in the following publication, Dror, I.E., Peron,
A. E., Hind, S.L., & Charlton, D. When emotions get the better of us: The effect of
contextual top-down processing on matching fingerprints. Applied Cognitive
Psychology, 2005.

In April 2006, Dave Charlton resigned as Chair of the Fingerprint Society as well as
from the committee.

Chatterjee, Sri Salil Kumar(1903 or 1904-Sept. 12, 1988)
Salil K. Chatterjee, of India, is recognized for developing edgeoscopy in 1962.
He is also recognized as developing the only practical soleprint classification
system.

Cheiloscopy
The study of lip prints.

Chemical Hazard
Chemical agent or condition that constitutes a hazard.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Chiridia
Hands and feet.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Chiridium
Hand or foot.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Chiroscopy
Examination of the hand (i.e. palms).

Circular Reasoning
Circular reasoning is the term for the error in logic of using the conclusion that you’re
trying to prove as part of the proof itself. Basically this is using the hypothesis as a
proven principle to support itself.

Citric Acid
Chemical used in the preparation of Physical Developer and other friction
ridge development reagents.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Clandestine
Kept or done in secret, often in order to conceal an illicit or improper purpose.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=clandestine 09-17-2004

Clarity
Visual quality of a friction ridge impression.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Clearness, i.e., how well friction skin ridge detail is recorded in a print.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Class Characteristics
Characteristics used to put things into groups or classes, e.g., arches,
loops, whorls.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Class characteristics are features that will be the same for every member of a group,
i.e. all whorls have at least 2 delta formations, as opposed to individual characteristics.

Classical Probability
A finite number of outcomes.

See Empirical Probability and Subjective Probability.

Classification
The act of categorizing items into groups. This could include labeling fingerprints as an
arch, a loop, or a whorl; could include labeling parts of a palm print as interdigital, thenar,
or hypothenar; or could be the process of using an alpha-numeric system to categorize prints.

Alpha numeric formula of finger and palmprint patterns used as a guide for filing and searching.
SWGFAST, Glossary 07-28-2009 ver. 2.0

Classification Systems
The Henry Classification System - developed by Henry in the late 1800's.
Icnofalangometric System - the original name of the system developed by Vucetich in 1891.
Dactiloscopy - the new name of the system developed by Vucetich.
The Oloriz System of Classification - developed by Oloriz.
Identakey - developed in the 1930's by G. Tyler Mairs.
The American System of Fingerprint Classification - developed by Parke in 1903.
The Conley System.
The Flak-Conley System - developed in 1906 in New Jersey, an improved Conley System.
NCIC Fingerprint Classification System.
Collins System – a classification system for single fingerprints used in Scotland Yard in
the early 1900’s.
Jorgensen System – a classification system for single fingerprints used in the early 1900’s.
Battley System - a classification system for single fingerprints used in the 1930’s.

Clean Delta
A term popularized by Ron Smith to describe the delta in the interdigital
area that is below the index finger. The angles of this delta are usually
evenly spaced. This is referred to as the 'clean delta' because it is
usually the clearest and most legible.

Clear Layer of Epidermis
See Stratum Lucidum.

Clerical Error
The failure to transcribe the intended information correctly on a document.

Cluster Prints
More than one print grouped together. These may or may not have been deposited simultaneously.

See Simultaneous Impressions.

Cognition
The mental process of knowing, including aspects such as awareness, perception, reasoning,
and judgment.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=cognition 06-08-2005

Cognitive Bias
Influences that may affect the reliability and validity of one’s observations and conclusions.
SWGFAST, Glossary 07-28-2009 ver. 2.0

Cognitive Influences
Influences that direct decision-making. The two cognitive influences are bottom-up and
top-down influences.

Cognitive Researchers
Dr. Itiel Dror
David Charlton

Ralph Haber
Lyn Haber

Dr. Thomas A. Busey
John R. Vanderkolk

Dean Bertram
Jon S. Byrd

Cole, Dr. Simon A. (1967-present)
Dr. Simon A. Cole is an Assistant Professor in the School of Ecology at the University
of California, Irvine, Department of Criminology, Law and Society. Some people refer
to Dr. Simon Cole as a fingerprint critic. In 2001, Dr. Cole wrote the article, ‘The
Myth of Fingerprints’ and the book, ‘Suspect Identities’. Dr. Cole questions the
accuracy of fingerprint identifications.

Colloidal Gold
A reagent that reacts with amino acids to develop friction ridge detail.
Colloidal Gold produces a weak colored print and usually needs additional
enhancement. Colloidal Gold is the initial suspension in the multimetal
deposition process.

Color Reversal
See Tonal Reversal.

Colored Superglue
In 2006, Avery L. Smith, a 7th grader at Raney Intermediate Middle School in Corona,
California did a science fair project to test different ways of coloring superglue for
easier visualization. She found that coloring the superglue with a pink highlighter
prior to heating the superglue made the latent images glow under a black light. In
addition to the science fair project, she presented this information at the 2007 IAI
Conference in San Diego, published it in “The Print” and in “Forensic Magazine”.

In 2006, Mountain State University received an NIJ grant that, under the guidance
of David Weaver, will research dyed superglue for better visualization.

Commonwealth v. Terry L. Patterson
See State of Massachusetts v. Patterson. ‘Commonwealth v. Terry L. Patterson’ is the
official name of this court case.

Comparator
A split image projection screen used to view fingerprint images.
Invented by William Russell-Turner.

Comparison
The second step of the ACE-V method. The observation of two or more impressions to
determine the existence of discrepancies, dissimilarities, or similarities.
SWGFAST, Glossary 07-28-2009 ver. 2.0

The act of comparing or finding likenesses or differences.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

More definitions listed under ACE-V.

Competency
Possessing and demonstrating the requisite knowledge, skills, and abilities to successfully
perform a specific task.
SWGFAST, Glossary 07-28-2009 ver. 2.0

Complex Examinations
The encountering of uncommon circumstances during an examination; for example, the
existence of high distortion, low quality or quantity, the possibility of simultaneity, or
conflicts among examiners.
SWGFAST, Glossary 07-28-2009 ver. 2.0

Complete Friction Ridge Exemplars
The new name for major case prints (proposed in 2006). This name change is designed to
describe what’s actually being recorded and eliminate misunderstandings associated with
the term major case prints.

A systematic recording of all friction ridge detail appearing on the palmar sides of the hands. This
includes the extreme sides of the palms; and joints, tips, and sides of the fingers.
SWGFAST, Glossary 07-28-2009 ver. 2.0

Conclusion
A result stemming from examining and assessing the totality of objective data, removing and/or
limiting as much human interpretation as possible.

See Opinion and Determination.

Conclusions for Comparisons
The formal observations seen or recorded during a comparison may indicate one
of the following conclusions:

Individualization (has consistency and sufficiency to establish individualization)
Match (could be consistent but not sufficient for establishing individualization)
Inconclusive-No identification or exclusion has been established.
-Incomplete. Exemplars don’t include the area the latent print was
left from (tips, palms, etc), different exemplars may change conclusion.
-Incomplete. Exemplars don’t include the detail in the latent print (level 3
detail), different exemplars may change conclusion.
-No identification effected. This may be due to time constraints, abilities, etc.
-Consistent but not sufficient. Features are consistent but not sufficient for
individualization. The latent print can not be individualized to the exemplars
and the exemplars cannot be excluded as the donor. Exclusionary value only.
-Generally consistent but not sufficient. The majority of the characteristics are
consistent or similar but an unexplained dissimilarity exists and the characteristics
that are consistent aren’t sufficient to establish an individualization.
No identification effected (may not indicate an exclusion)
Exclusion (not left by a subject)
No value for identification (may have exclusionary value)
No value for comparison (no value for identification or exclusion)
No value for determining simultaneity

Some reasons for ‘no value’ may be that a print lacks quality, quantity, clarity, or reliability.

Conclusive
Serving to end doubt or uncertainty.
Webster's II New Riverside Dictionary, Office Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Publishing Co. Copyright 1984, Berkley Addition.

Expressing finality with no implication of possible change; "an absolute
(or unequivocal) quarantee to respect the nation's authority"; "inability
to make a conclusive (or unequivocal) refusal".
WordNet ® 1.6, © 1997 Princeton University
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=conclusive 03-09-2003

Confirmation Bias
A form of selective thinking that involves focusing on data that confirms preconceived
expectations while ignoring data that doesn’t confirm ones beliefs.

To compensate for this natural human tendency the scientific method is constructed
so that we must try to disprove our hypotheses.
http://www.fact-index.com/c/co/confirmation_bias.html 07-14-2004

The tendency to search for data or interpret information in a manner that supports
one’s preconceptions.
SWGFAST, Glossary 07-28-2009 ver. 2.0

Conflict
A difference of conclusion that becomes apparent during the application of an examination
methodology.
SWGFAST, Glossary 07-28-2009 ver. 2.0

Conflicting Conclusions
Failure of the verification process to result in confirmation of a prior conclusion
constitutes a conflicting conclusion. Three types of conflict can occur: 1)
individualization versus exclusion, 2) individualization versus inconclusive or 3)
exclusion versus inconclusive.
SWGFAST - Quality Assurance Guidelines for Latent Print Examiners, (9/28/06 ver 3.0)

Congenital
Of or relating to a condition that is present at birth, as a
result of either heredity or environmental influences.
The American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=congenital 06-11-03

Connective Ambiguity
A phrase first used by David Stoney to refer to minutia that cannot be specifically
determined due to distortion (as with a bifurcation or a ridge ending). Although a
characteristic itself may be ambiguous, its existence can be determined by the features
of the surrounding ridges. Minutia with connective ambiguity will be given less weight
than clearly visible minutia.

Constellation Method
See Pincushion Method.

Consultation
A significant interaction between examiners regarding one or more impressions in question.
SWGFAST, Glossary 07-28-2009 ver. 2.0

Contemporaneous Documentation
To document the steps done as you are doing them. The value in doing this is to
know what was done in situations that can’t be redone (such as physical tasks).

Contextual Bias
The tendency to allow information or outside influences to interfere with the evaluation
and interpretation of data.
SWGFAST, Glossary 07-28-2009 ver. 2.0

Convergence
Two or more ridges running parallel and then moving towards each other.

Cooke, Donald
Donald Cooke was the son of T.G. Cooke. He worked along side his father
at the Institute of Applied Science and helped operate the IAS after his
fathers death in 1952 until his own retirement in 1975.

Cooke, T. Dickerson (1911-1980)
T. Dickerson Cooke was the son of T.G. Cooke. After graduating from college
Cooke worked with his father at the Institute of Applied Science. In 1952,
he took over as director of the IAS and retired in 1975.

Cooke, Thomas Grant (1885-1952)
T. G. Cooke was a civil engineer who founded a correspondence school for
railway signal engineers. In 1916, along with Captain William K. Evans,
he established "Evan's University", later known as the Institute of Applied
Science. He served as director of the IAS until his death in 1952. The
IAS became instrumental in training experts in the identification field.

Coomassie Blue
Blue protein stain used to enhance bloody friction ridge detail.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Core
The approximate center of a pattern.
SWGFAST, Glossary 07-28-2009 ver. 2.0

Corium
Dermis; often referred to as the true skin.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Correspond
To be in agreement, harmony, or conformity. To be similar or equivalent in
character, quantity, origin, structure, or function
The American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=correspond 02-27-03

Crease
A line or linear depression; grooves at the joints of the phalanges, at the junction
of the digits and across the palmar and plantar surfaces that accommodate flexion.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Two types of creases: Flexion creases disrupt the basal layer of the epidermis
and have no ridge detail within the crease. White lines (or tension creases)
disrupt the stratum corneum or horny layer of the epidermis and do have ridge
detail within the crease.

See Bracelet Creases, Distal Transverse Crease, Metacarpo-Phalangeal Crease,
Proximal Transverse Crease, Radial Longitudinal Crease, Occasional Features.

See Flexion Creases, Tension Creases and White Lines.

Crispi, Charles
See People v. Crispi.

Cross-Hatching
Cross-hatching is a term popularized by Ron Smith that describes the crease
pattern in the thenar area of the palm. These creases intersect other creases
running in a perpendicular direction.

Crowle's Double Stain
Blue protein stain used to enhance bloody friction ridge detail.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Crows Feet
A term popularized by Ron Smith to describe the ulnar side of the distal
transverse crease. On the ulnar side of the palm, the distal transverse
crease is a series of bifurcating creases resembling crow's feet.

Crystal Violet
See Gentian Violet.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Cummins, Dr. Harold (1893-1976)
Doctor Cummins is universally acknowledged as the Father of Dermatoglyphics.
Harold studied all aspects of fingerprint analysis, from anthropology to genetics,
from embryology to the study of malformed hands with from two to seven fingers.(13)
He pulled together the diverse work of his predecessors, added original research
and set the standards of the field still in force to the present. His famous Down
Syndrome(14) studies predicted a genetic link to the disease based upon the
presence of the Simian Crease.
http://www.handanalysis.net/library/derm_cummins.htm 2-27-03

Cummins is also known for inventing the term dermatoglyphics in 1926 and writing the
book "Fingerprints, Palms and Soles" with Charles Midlo in 1943.

Curriculum Vitae
A summary of one's education, professional history, and job qualifications,
as for a prospective employer.
The American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=curriculum%20vitae 07-08-2003

Cuspal
When the ridges on a finger run vertically from the crease to the tip of the finger.
Moenssens states that these patterns cannot be grouped into any of the Henry pattern
types. Cummins states that they should be grouped into the accidental whorl category.
Others have stated that cuspal patterns should be classified as a tented arch.

Cyanoacrylate Ester
A fuming technique used to develop friction ridge detail on nonporous items, but
does not interfere with the processing of porous items. The cyanoacrylate ester
polymerizes on the components of the latent residue creating a white impression.
The value of using cyanoacrylate ester as a latent processing technique was first
realized by Fuseo Matsumura in 1977, a trace evidence examiner with the Japanese
National Police Agency. Heating cyanoacrylate ester decreases the development time,
but heating it above 400 degrees Fahrenheit generates hydrogen cyanide (Identification
News, Sept. 1985, "A word of caution"). Humidity and vinegar are both known catalysts
to this technique.

Also referred to as superglue, CA, or CAE.

See Colored Superglue and SuperGlue Girl.

Cyclohexane
Solvent used in the preparation of liquid Iodine reagent.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf